|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]|
Nature of Products and Services
Perpetual software licenses
The Company’s perpetual software license arrangements grant customers the right to use the software indefinitely as it exists at the time of purchase. The Company recognizes revenue for distinct software licenses once the license period has begun and the software has been made available to the customer. Payments for perpetual software license contracts are generally received upon fulfillment of the software product.
Term software licenses
The Company's term software licenses differ from perpetual software licenses in that the customer's right to use the licensed product has a termination date. Prior to the adoption of Topic 606, these licenses were recognized ratably over the contractual term, beginning on the commencement date of each contract, which is typically the date the Company’s product has been fulfilled. Under the provisions of Topic 606, term software licenses are now recognized upon transfer of control, which is typically at fulfillment, resulting in up-front revenue recognition. The Company categorizes revenue from term software licenses as subscription, maintenance and support revenue in service revenues. Payments are generally received quarterly or annually in equal or near equal installments over the term of the agreement.
Cloud-hosted software as a service
Cloud-hosted software as a service (SaaS) arrangements grant customers the right to access and use the licensed products at the outset of an arrangement via third-party cloud providers. Updates are generally made available throughout the entire term of the arrangement, which is generally one to three years. The Company provides an online library and technical support resources in these cloud-hosted SaaS arrangements, which in conjunction with the SaaS license constitute a single, combined performance obligation, and revenue is recognized over the term of the license. Payments are generally received annually in advance of the service period.
The Company sells appliances that are typically drop shipped from third-party suppliers selected by the Company. The transaction price allocated to the appliance is generally recognized as revenue at fulfillment when the customer obtains control of the product. Payments for appliances are generally received upon delivery of the hardware product.
Maintenance and support
Maintenance and support arrangements grant customers the right to software updates and technical support over the term of the maintenance and support contract. Revenue from maintenance and support is generally recognized ratably over the contract term beginning on the commencement date of each contract, which is upon fulfillment of the software obligation. Payments are generally received annually in advance of the service period.
Professional services and training
Professional services and training generally consist of software implementation, on-boarding services and best practices consulting. Revenue from professional services contracts is typically recognized as performed, generally using hours expended to measure progress. Services are generally invoiced monthly for work performed.
Revenues by product category and geography
The Company combines its products and services into three product categories and three geographic regions, based on customer location, as follows (in thousands):
More judgments and estimates are required under Topic 606 than were required under Topic 605. Due to the complexity of certain contracts, the actual revenue recognition treatment required under Topic 606 for the Company’s arrangements may be dependent on contract-specific terms and may vary in some instances.
Our contracts with customers typically contain promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. Judgment is required to determine whether each product and/or service is considered to be a distinct performance obligation that should be accounted for separately under the contract. We allocate the transaction price to the distinct performance obligations based on relative standalone selling price (“SSP”). We estimate SSP by maximizing use of observable prices such as the prices charged to customers on a standalone basis, established prices lists, contractually stated prices, profit margins and other entity-specific factors, or by using information such as market conditions and other observable inputs. However, the selling prices of the Company's software licenses and cloud-hosted SaaS arrangements are highly variable. Thus, we estimate SSP for software licenses and cloud-hosted SaaS arrangements using the residual approach, determined based on total transaction price less the SSP of other goods and services promised in the contract.
Determining whether licenses and services are distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately, or not distinct and thus accounted for together, requires significant judgment. In some arrangements, such as most of the Company’s license arrangements, the Company has concluded that the licenses and associated services are distinct from each other. In others, like the Company’s cloud-hosted SaaS arrangements, the license and certain services are not distinct from each other and therefore the Company has concluded that these promised goods and services are a single, combined performance obligation.
If a group of agreements are so closely related that they are, in effect, part of a single arrangement, such agreements are deemed to be one arrangement for revenue recognition purposes. The Company exercises significant judgment to evaluate the relevant facts and circumstances in determining whether the separate agreements should be accounted for separately or as, in substance, a single arrangement. The Company’s judgments about whether a group of contracts comprise a single arrangement can affect the allocation of consideration to the distinct performance obligations, which could have an effect on results of operations for the periods involved.
The Company is required to estimate the total consideration expected to be received from contracts with customers. In limited circumstances, the consideration expected to be received is variable based on the specific terms of the contract or based on the Company’s expectations of the term of the contract. Generally, the Company has not experienced significant returns from or refunds to customers. These estimates require significant judgment and the change in these estimates could have an effect on its results of operations during the periods involved.
The timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers and these timing differences result in receivables or contract liabilities (deferred revenue) on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. The Company records deferred revenue when revenue is recognized subsequent to invoicing.
The Company’s balances for contract assets totaled $550,000 and $485,000 as of January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018, respectively. The Company’s balances for contract liabilities, which are included in current and non-current deferred revenue, totaled $8.6 million and $11.3 million as of January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2018, respectively.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company recognized $8.2 million of revenue that was included in the deferred revenue balance, as adjusted for Topic 606, at the beginning of the period. All other activity in deferred revenue is due to the timing of invoices in relation to the timing of revenue as described above.
Revenue allocated to remaining performance obligations represents the transaction price allocated to the performance obligations that are unsatisfied, or partially unsatisfied, which includes unearned revenue and amounts that will be invoiced and recognized as revenue in future periods. Contracted but unsatisfied performance obligations were approximately $21.6 million as of December 31, 2018, of which the Company expects to recognize $12.8 million of revenue over the next 12 months and the remainder thereafter.
Payment terms and conditions vary by contract type, although terms generally include a requirement of payment within 30 to 60 days. In instances where the timing of revenue recognition differs from the timing of invoicing, the Company has determined that its contracts generally do not include a significant financing component. The primary purpose of invoicing terms is to provide customers with simplified and predictable ways of purchasing the Company’s products and services, and not to facilitate financing arrangements.
The entire disclosure of revenue from contract with customer to transfer good or service and to transfer nonfinancial asset. Includes, but is not limited to, disaggregation of revenue, credit loss recognized from contract with customer, judgment and change in judgment related to contract with customer, and asset recognized from cost incurred to obtain or fulfill contract with customer. Excludes insurance and lease contracts.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef