Nature of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Nature of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Nature of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Business
Qumu Corporation ("Qumu" or the "Company") provides the tools to create, manage, secure, distribute and measure the success of live and on-demand video for the enterprise. The Qumu platform enables global organizations to drive employee engagement, increase access to video, and modernize the workplace by providing a more efficient and effective way to share knowledge. The world’s largest organizations leverage the Qumu platform for a variety of cloud, on-premise and hybrid deployments. Use cases including self-service webcasting, sales enablement, internal communications, product training, regulatory compliance and customer engagement. The Company markets its products to customers primarily in North America, Europe and Asia.
The Company views its operations and manages its business as one segment and one reporting unit. Factors used to identify the Company's single operating segment and reporting unit include the financial information available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker in making decisions about how to allocate resources and assess performance. The Company markets its products and services through regional sales representatives and independent distributors in the United States and international markets.
The Company previously conducted its operations through two businesses consisting of 1) its enterprise video content management software business and 2) its disc publishing business. On June 27, 2014, the Company's shareholders approved the sale of the disc publishing assets and on July 1, 2014, the sale was completed. The results of the discontinued disc publishing business and associated financial impacts from the sale of this business have been presented as discontinued operations in the statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2016; there were no such financial impacts to the consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. Accordingly, effective June 27, 2014, the Company had one remaining reportable segment, the enterprise video content management software business. All remaining amounts presented in the accompanying consolidated financial statements and notes reflect the financial results and financial position of the Company's continuing enterprise video content management software business.
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, for which the current carrying amounts approximate fair market values based on quoted market prices or net asset value; warrant liabilities, for which the fair value of $2.8 million at December 31, 2018 is based on the Company's estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the liabilities (Level 3 inputs; see Note 6–"Fair Value Measurements"); and a term loan having a carrying value of $3.4 million at December 31, 2018, for which the fair value of $3.4 million at December 31, 2018 is estimated using a discounted cash flow analysis based on the Company’s current incremental borrowing rate and the contractual terms of the loan (Level 2 inputs; see Note 4–"Commitments and Contingencies").
The Company generates revenue through the sale of enterprise video content management software, hardware, maintenance and support, and professional and other services. Software sales may take the form of a perpetual software license, a cloud-hosted software as a service (SaaS) or a term software license. Software licenses and appliances revenue includes sales of perpetual software licenses and hardware. Service revenue includes SaaS, term software licenses, maintenance and support, and professional and other services. An individual sale can range from single year agreements for thousands of dollars to multi-year agreements for over a million dollars.
The Company follows a five-step model to assess each contract of a sale or service to a customer: identify the legally binding contract, identify the performance obligations, determine the transaction price, allocate the transaction price, and determine whether revenue will be recognized at a point in time or over time.
Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services (i.e., performance obligations) to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for promised goods or services. The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied either over time (for cloud-hosted software as a service, maintenance and support, and other services) or at a point in time (for software licenses and hardware).
The Company enters into contracts that can include various combinations of software licenses, appliances, maintenance and services, some of which are distinct and are accounted for as separate performance obligations. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, the Company allocates the transaction price of the contract to each distinct performance obligation, on a relative basis using its standalone selling price.
The Company determines the standalone selling price for software-related elements, including professional services and software maintenance and support contracts, based on the price charged for the deliverable when sold separately.
With the adoption of Topic 606 (defined herein under "Recently Adopted Accounting Standards") beginning January 1, 2018, the Company had a change in the accounting for revenue of its on-premise term software license arrangements. Under the Company's previous revenue accounting, the term software license and technical support elements of the combined bundle were recognized over time. In contrast, Topic 606 requires the Company to identify the performance obligations in the contract – that is, those promised goods and services (or bundles of promised goods or services) that are distinct – and allocate the transaction price of the contract to those performance obligations on the basis of standalone selling prices. The transaction price allocated to each performance obligation is then recognized either at a point in time or over time using an appropriate measure of progress. Under Topic 606, the Company has concluded that its on-premise term software licenses and technical support for its on-premise term software licenses are distinct from each other. As a result, the software license is now recognized upon transfer of control, which is at fulfillment, resulting in earlier revenue recognition. The revenue allocable to technical support continues to be recognized ratably over the non-cancellable committed term of the agreement.
Other items relating to charges collected from customers include shipping and handling charges and sales taxes charges. Shipping and handling charges collected from customers as part of the Company's sales transactions are included in revenues and the associated costs are included in cost of revenues. Sales taxes charged to and collected from customers as part of the Company’s sales transactions are excluded from revenues and recorded as a liability to the applicable governmental taxing authority.
Deferred revenue consists of billings or payments received in advance of revenue recognition and is recognized as the revenue recognition criteria are met. The deferred revenue balance does not represent the total contract value of annual or multi-year, non-cancellable subscription agreements. Deferred revenue that will be recognized during the succeeding 12-month period is recorded as current deferred revenue, and the remaining portion is recorded as non-current deferred revenue.
Deferred Sales Commissions
Sales commissions represent the direct incremental costs related to the acquisition of customer contracts. The Company recognizes commissions as sales and marketing expense at the time the associated product revenue is recognized, requiring establishment of a deferred cost in the event a commission is paid prior to recognition of revenue. The deferred commission amounts are recoverable through the related future revenue streams under non-cancellable customer contracts and commission clawback provisions in the Company's sales compensation plans. Deferred commission costs included in prepaid expenses and other assets were $527,000 and $309,000 at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Deferred commission costs in other assets, non-current were $33,000 and $46,000 at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The Company recognized commissions expense of $1.3 million and $1.7 million during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are stated at fair value. As of December 31, 2017, cash and cash equivalents included certain funds required to be segregated for debt repayment. Such funds were under the Company’s control as of December 31, 2017 and were subsequently released from such requirement upon the Company’s refinancing of its term loan on January 12, 2018, as described in Note 5–“Commitments and Contingencies.”
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are initially recorded at a selling price, which approximates fair value upon the sale of goods or services to customers. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts to reflect accounts receivable at net realizable value. In judging the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts, the Company considers multiple factors, including historical bad debt experience, the general economic environment, the need for specific client reserves and the aging of the Company’s receivables. A portion of this provision is included in operating expenses as a general and administrative expense and a portion of this provision is included as a reduction of license revenue. A considerable amount of judgment is required in assessing these factors. If the factors utilized in determining the allowance do not reflect future performance, then a change in the allowance for doubtful accounts would be necessary in the period such determination has been made, which would impact future results of operations.
Changes to the allowance for doubtful accounts consisted of the following (in thousands):
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined on a first-in, first-out basis. The Company records provisions for potential excess, obsolete and slow-moving inventory. Results could be different if demand for the Company’s products decreased because of economic or competitive conditions, or if products became obsolete because of technical advancements in the industry or by the Company. Inventory included in prepaid expenses and other current assets was $191,000 and $227,000 as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost and depreciated on a straight-line basis over estimated useful lives ranging from one to seven years for most assets. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the property’s useful life or the term of the underlying lease. Repairs and maintenance costs are charged to operations as incurred. The asset cost and related accumulated depreciation or amortization are adjusted for asset retirement or disposal, with the resulting gain or loss, if any, credited or charged to results of operations.
The Company continually monitors events and changes in circumstances that could indicate that carrying amounts of its long-lived assets, including property and equipment and intangible assets may not be recoverable. When such events or changes in circumstances occur, the Company assesses the recoverability of long-lived assets by determining whether the carrying value of such assets will be recovered through their undiscounted expected future cash flows. If the future undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying amount of these assets, the Company recognizes an impairment loss based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the assets.
The Company records goodwill when consideration paid in a purchase acquisition exceeds the fair value of the net tangible assets and the identified intangible assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized, but rather is tested for impairment annually or more frequently if facts and circumstances warrant a review. The Company has determined that there is a single reporting unit for the purpose of goodwill impairment tests. For purposes of assessing the impairment of goodwill, the Company annually, at its fiscal year end, estimates the fair value of the reporting unit and compares this amount to the carrying value of the reporting unit. If the Company determines that the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. As of December 31, 2018, the Company completed its annual impairment test of goodwill. Based upon that evaluation, the Company determined that its goodwill was not impaired. See Note 3–"Intangible Assets and Goodwill."
In conjunction with the debt financings completed in October 2016 and January 2018, the Company issued two warrants for the purchase of up to an aggregate of 1,239,286 shares of the Company's common stock, which remained unexercised and outstanding at December 31, 2018. The warrant issued in conjunction with the October 21, 2016 debt financing (Hale warrant) for the purchase of up to 314,286 shares of the Company's common stock expires on October 21, 2026, has an exercise price of $2.80 per share and is transferable. The warrant issued in conjunction with the January 12, 2018 debt financing (ESW warrant) for the purchase of up to 925,000 shares of the Company's common stock expires on January 12, 2028, has an exercise price of $1.96 per share and is transferable. Additionally, the Company issued a warrant to a sales partner, iStudy Co., Ltd., for the purchase of up to 100,000 shares of the Company's common stock; the warrant expires on August 31, 2028, has an exercise price of $2.43 per share and is transferable. The Hale warrant and ESW warrant contain a cash settlement feature upon the occurrence of a certain events, essentially the sale of the Company as defined in the warrant agreements. Upon a sale of the Company, the holder of the iStudy warrant may exercise the warrant or may elect to receive the same consideration as it would have been entitled to receive upon the occurrence of such transaction if it had been the holder of the shares then issuable upon such exercise of the warrant. As a result of these features, the warrants are subject to derivative accounting as prescribed under ASC 815. Accordingly, the fair value of the warrants on the dates of issuance was recorded in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets as a liability.
The Company estimates the fair value of this liability using option pricing models that are based on the individual characteristics of the warrants on the valuation date, which include assumptions for expected volatility, expected life and risk-free interest rate, as well as the present value of the minimum cash payment component of the instrument for the warrants, when applicable. Changes in the assumptions used could have a material impact on the resulting fair value. The primary inputs affecting the value of the warrant liability are the Company’s stock price and volatility in the Company's stock price, as well as assumptions about the probability and timing of certain events, such as a change in control or future equity offerings. Increases in the fair value of the underlying stock or increases in the volatility of the stock price generally result in a corresponding increase in the fair value of the warrant liability; conversely, decreases in the fair value of the underlying stock or decreases in the volatility of the stock price generally result in a corresponding decrease in the fair value of the warrant liability.
The Company measures stock-based compensation based on the fair value of the award at the date of grant. For awards subject to time-based vesting, the Company recognizes stock-based compensation on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award. Compensation cost is recognized over the vesting period to the extent the requisite service requirements are met, whether or not the award is ultimately exercised. Conversely, when the requisite service requirements are not met and the award is forfeited prior to vesting, any compensation expense previously recognized for the award is reversed.
For awards subject to performance conditions, the Company accounts for compensation expense based upon the grant-date fair value of the awards applied to the best estimate of ultimate performance against the respective targets on a straight-line basis over the requisite vesting period of the awards. The performance conditions require management to make assumptions regarding the likelihood of achieving certain performance goals. Changes in these performance assumptions, as well as differences in actual results from management’s estimates, could result in estimated or actual values different from previously estimated fair values.
Research and Development Costs
Costs related to research, design and development of products are charged to research and development expense as incurred. Software development costs are capitalized beginning when a product’s technological feasibility has been established and ending when a product is available for general release to customers. The Company uses the working model approach to determine technological feasibility. The Company’s products are released soon after technological feasibility has been established. As a result, the Company has not capitalized any software development costs because such costs have not been significant.
Royalties for Third-Party Technology
Royalties for third-party technology are either paid in advance and capitalized as prepaid royalties or are accrued as incurred and subsequently paid. These royalties are generally expensed to cost of revenue at the greater of a rate based on the contractual or estimated term or an effective royalty rate based on the total projected net revenue for contracts with guaranteed minimums. Each quarter, the Company also evaluates the expected future realization of its prepaid royalties, as well as any minimum commitments not yet paid to determine amounts it deems unlikely to be realized through product sales. Any impairments or losses determined before the launch of a product are generally charged to general and administrative expense, and any impairments or losses determined post-launch are charged to cost of revenue. Unrecognized minimum royalty-based commitments are accounted for as executory contracts and, therefore, any losses on these commitments are recognized when the underlying intellectual property is abandoned (i.e., cease use) or the contractual rights to use the intellectual property are terminated.
The Company provides for income taxes using the asset and liability method, which requires recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some component or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Tax rate changes are reflected in income during the period such changes are enacted.
Foreign Currency Translation
The functional currency for each of the Company’s international subsidiaries is the respective local currency. The Company translates its financial statements of consolidated entities whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar into U.S. dollars. The Company translates its assets and liabilities at the exchange rate in effect as of the financial statement date and translates statement of operations accounts using the average exchange rate for the period. Exchange rate differences resulting from translation adjustments are accounted for as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss. Gains or losses, whether realized or unrealized, due to transactions in foreign currencies are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations under the line item other income (expense). The net gains (losses) on foreign currency transactions for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 were $(55,000), $(356,000) and $162,000, respectively, and are included in other income (expense) in the consolidated statements of operations.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is calculated by adjusting both the numerator (net loss) and the denominator (weighted-average number of shares outstanding), giving effect to all potentially dilutive common shares from warrants, options and restricted stock units. The treasury stock method is used for computing potentially dilutive common shares. Under this method, consideration that would be received upon exercise (as well as remaining compensation cost to be recognized for awards not yet vested) is assumed to be used to repurchase shares of stock in the market, with the net number of shares assumed to be issued added to the denominator. In addition, the numerator is adjusted to exclude the changes in the fair value of the warrants that are classified as a liability but may be settled in shares. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2016, the Company reported diluted net loss as the impact of excluding the warrant income and related potentially dilutive shares was dilutive. Basic and diluted net loss per common share was the same for the year ended December 31, 2017 as the impact of all potentially dilutive securities outstanding was anti-dilutive.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) includes net income and items defined as other comprehensive income, such as unrealized gains and losses on foreign currency translation adjustments. Such items are reported in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss).
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) and the related amendments ("Topic 606") using the modified retrospective transition method. Under this method, the Company evaluated contracts that were in effect at the beginning of fiscal 2018 as if those contracts had been accounted for under Topic 606. The Company did not evaluate individual modifications for those periods prior to the adoption date, but the aggregate effect of all modifications as of the adoption date and such effects are provided below. Under the modified retrospective transition approach, periods prior to the adoption date were not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with historical, pre-Topic 606 accounting. A cumulative catch up adjustment was recorded to beginning accumulated deficit to reflect the impact of all existing arrangements under Topic 606.
At the adoption date, the Company adjusted accumulated deficit by $939,000, primarily driven by uncompleted contracts for which revenue will not be recognized in future periods under Topic 606, partially offset by the incremental originating costs associated with those contracts. The cumulative effect of the changes made to our January 1, 2018 consolidated balance sheet from the modified retrospective adoption of Topic 606 is as follows (in thousands):
The most significant impact of the adoption of Topic 606 was on the Company's term software licenses that, under the Company's previous revenue accounting ("Topic 605"), would have continued to be recognized into revenue ratably in 2018 and beyond. However, under Topic 606 the standalone selling price attributable to the license is recognized upon transfer of control resulting in up-front recognition, typically upon fulfillment. The timing of revenue recognition for perpetual software licenses, hardware, and professional services remains substantially unchanged. See Note 8–"Revenue" for the Company's revenue recognition policy after the adoption of Topic 606.
Revenue generated under Topic 606 was $201,000 higher than revenue would have been under Topic 605 for the year ended December 31, 2018. The following table summarizes the effects of adopting Topic 606 on the Company’s consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss) for the year ended December 31, 2018:
The following table summarizes the effects of adopting Topic 606 on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018:
The Company’s net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 did not change due to the adoption of Topic 606. The following table summarizes the effects of adopting Topic 606 on the financial statement line items of the Company’s consolidated statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2018:
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments – Overall, which the Company adopted on January 1, 2018, modifying its accounting and required disclosures for its equity investment previously accounted for under the cost basis method of accounting.
The Company’s equity investment consisted of its investment totaling $3.1 million in convertible preferred stock of privately-held BriefCam, Ltd. (“BriefCam”), as described in Note 4–"Investment in Software Company," which is included in other assets in the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2017. The new standard eliminated the cost method of accounting for investments in equity securities that do not have readily determinable fair values and permits the election of a measurement alternative that allows such securities to be recorded at cost, less impairment, if any, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in market-based transactions for an identical or similar investment of the same issuer. The Company adopted the provisions of the new standard applicable to its investment in BriefCam on a prospective basis and elected the measurement alternative for non-marketable investments previously accounted for under the cost method of accounting.
On July 6, 2018, the Company sold its investment in BriefCam, which had a carrying value of $3.1 million as of December 31, 2017, resulting in a gain on sale of $6.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2018. From the date of adoption of the new accounting standard on January 1, 2018 to the sale of BriefCam, there were no observable price changes or impairments related to the Company’s non-marketable investment in the equity security.
In March 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2018-05, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, which updates the income tax accounting in U.S. GAAP to reflect the SEC interpretive guidance released on December 22, 2017, when the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 was signed into law. Additional information regarding the adoption of this standard is contained in Note 11–"Income Taxes."
Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Disclosure Framework – Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820), which changes the fair value measurement disclosure requirements of ASC 820. The ASU is effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted for any eliminated or modified disclosures upon issuance of this ASU. The Company does not believe the impact of adopting this standard will be material to its consolidated financial statements disclosures.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement – Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220), which allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to retained earnings (accumulated deficit) for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 and requires certain disclosures regarding stranded tax effects in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted during interim or annual periods. The Company does not believe the impact of adopting this standard will be material to its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The purpose of the amendment is to simplify how an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Step 2 measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. This standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company does not believe the impact of adopting this standard will be material to its consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases, which will supersede the existing lease guidance and will require all leases with a term greater than 12 months to be recognized in the statements of financial position and eliminate current real estate-specific lease guidance, while maintaining substantially similar classification criteria for distinguishing between finance leases and operating leases. The FASB subsequently issued ASU 2018-10 and ASU 2018-11 in July 2018, which provide clarifications and improvements to ASU 2016-02 (collectively, the “new lease standard”). ASU 2018-11 also provides the optional transition method, which allows companies to apply the new lease standard at the adoption date instead of at the earliest comparative period presented.
The new lease standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted and requires using the modified retrospective approach. The Company plans to use the alternative modified retrospective method of adoption permitted pursuant to ASU 2018-11, whereby financial information will not be updated, and the disclosure required under the new lease standard will not be provided, for dates and periods before January 1, 2019. In addition, the Company expects to elect the “package of practical expedients,” which permits the Company not to reassess under the new standard its prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. However, the Company does not expect to adopt the hindsight practical expedient, and therefore expects to continue to utilize lease terms determined under existing lease guidance.
To date, the Company has developed a project plan to guide the implementation of the new lease standard and has made progress on this plan, including assessing the Company’s portfolio of leases and compiling information on active leases. Additionally, the Company implemented a lease accounting software to facilitate adoption of the standard, and is currently installing, configuring and testing the software.
While the Company is still evaluating the impact on its consolidated financial statements of adopting this standard, it expects to recognize, upon adoption, right-of-use assets of approximately $1.0 million to $1.3 million and lease liabilities of $1.6 million and $1.9 million. The difference between the assets and liabilities will primarily be attributable to the reclassification of certain existing lease-related assets and liabilities as an adjustment to the right-of-use assets. The Company does not expect the adjustment under the modified retrospective approach to accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2019 to be material. Additionally, the Company does not expect the adoption of the new lease guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated statements of operations or cash flows, or compliance with debt covenants.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef