|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]|
More judgments and estimates are required under Topic 606 than were required under Topic 605. Due to the complexity of certain contracts, the actual revenue recognition treatment required under Topic 606 for the Company’s arrangements may be dependent on contract-specific terms and may vary in some instances.
Our contracts with customers typically contain promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. Judgment is required to determine whether each product and/or service is considered to be a distinct performance obligation that should be accounted for separately under the contract. We allocate the transaction price to the distinct performance obligations based on relative standalone selling price (“SSP”). We estimate SSP by maximizing use of observable prices such as the prices charged to customers on a standalone basis, established prices lists, contractually stated prices, profit margins and other entity-specific factors, or by using information such as market conditions and other observable inputs. However, the selling prices of the Company's software licenses and cloud-hosted SaaS arrangements are highly variable. Thus, we estimate SSP for software licenses and cloud-hosted SaaS arrangements using the residual approach, determined based on total transaction price less the SSP of other goods and services promised in the contract.
Determining whether licenses and services are distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately, or not distinct and thus accounted for together, requires significant judgment. In some arrangements, such as most of the Company’s license arrangements, the Company has concluded that the licenses and associated services are distinct from each other. In others, like the Company’s cloud-hosted SaaS arrangements, the license and certain services are not distinct from each other and therefore the Company has concluded that these promised goods and services are a single, combined performance obligation.
If a group of agreements are so closely related that they are, in effect, part of a single arrangement, such agreements are deemed to be one arrangement for revenue recognition purposes. The Company exercises significant judgment to evaluate the relevant facts and circumstances in determining whether the separate agreements should be accounted for separately or as, in substance, a single arrangement. The Company’s judgments about whether a group of contracts comprise a single arrangement can affect the allocation of consideration to the distinct performance obligations, which could have an effect on results of operations for the periods involved.
The Company is required to estimate the total consideration expected to be received from contracts with customers. In limited circumstances, the consideration expected to be received is variable based on the specific terms of the contract or based on the Company’s expectations of the term of the contract. Generally, the Company has not experienced significant returns from or refunds to customers. These estimates require significant judgment and the change in these estimates could have an effect on its results of operations during the periods involved.
The Company generates revenue through the sale of enterprise video content management software, hardware, maintenance and support, and professional and other services. Software sales may take the form of a perpetual software license, a cloud-hosted software as a service (SaaS) or a term software license. Software licenses and appliances revenue includes sales of perpetual software licenses and hardware. Service revenue includes SaaS, term software licenses, maintenance and support, and professional and other services. An individual sale can range from single year agreements for thousands of dollars to multi-year agreements for over a million dollars.
The Company follows a five-step model to assess each contract of a sale or service to a customer: identify the legally binding contract, identify the performance obligations, determine the transaction price, allocate the transaction price, and determine whether revenue will be recognized at a point in time or over time basis.
Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services (i.e., performance obligations) to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for promised goods or services. The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied either over time (for cloud-hosted software as a service, maintenance and support, and other services) or at a point in time (for software licenses and hardware).
The Company enters into contracts that can include various combinations of software licenses, appliances, maintenance and services, some of which are distinct and are accounted for as separate performance obligations. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, the Company allocates the transaction price of the contract to each distinct performance obligation, on a relative basis using its standalone selling price.
The Company determines the standalone selling price for software-related elements, including professional services and software maintenance and support contracts, based on the price charged for the deliverable when sold separately.
With the adoption of Topic 606 beginning January 1, 2018, the Company had a change in the accounting for revenue of its on-premise term software license arrangements. Under Topic 605, the term software license and technical support elements of the combined bundle were recognized over time. In contrast, Topic 606 requires the Company to identify the performance obligations in the contract – that is, those promised goods and services (or bundles of promised goods or services) that are distinct – and allocate the transaction price of the contract to those performance obligations on the basis of standalone selling prices. The transaction price allocated to each performance obligation is then recognized either at a point in time or over time using an appropriate measure of progress. Under Topic 606, the Company has concluded that its on-premise term software licenses and technical support for its on-premise term software licenses are distinct from each other. As a result, the software license is now recognized upon transfer of control, which is at fulfillment, resulting in earlier revenue recognition. The revenue allocable to technical support continues to be recognized ratably over the non-cancellable committed term of the agreement.
Other items relating to charges collected from customers include shipping and handling charges and sales taxes charges. Shipping and handling charges collected from customers as part of the Company's sales transactions are included in revenues and the associated costs are included in cost of revenues. Sales taxes charged to and collected from customers as part of the Company’s sales transactions are excluded from revenues and recorded as a liability to the applicable governmental taxing authority.
Nature of Products and Services
Perpetual software licenses
The Company’s perpetual software license arrangements grant customers the right to use the software indefinitely as it exists at the time of purchase. The Company recognizes revenue for distinct software licenses once the license period has begun and the software has been made available to the customer. Payments for perpetual software license contracts are generally received upon fulfillment of the software product.
Term software licenses
The Company's term software licenses differ from perpetual software licenses in that the customer's right to use the licensed product has a termination date. Prior to the adoption of Topic 606, these licenses were recognized ratably over the contractual term, beginning on the commencement date of each contract, which is typically the date the Company’s product has been fulfilled. Under the provisions of Topic 606, term software licenses are now recognized upon transfer of control, which is typically at fulfillment, resulting in up-front revenue recognition. The Company categorizes revenue from term software licenses as subscription, maintenance and support revenue in service revenues. Payments are generally received quarterly or annually in equal or near equal installments over the term of the agreement.
Cloud-hosted software as a service
Cloud-hosted software as a service (SaaS) arrangements grant customers the right to access and use the licensed products at the outset of an arrangement via third-party cloud providers. Updates are generally made available throughout the entire term of the arrangement, which is generally one to three years. The Company provides an online library and technical support resources in these cloud-hosted SaaS arrangements, which in conjunction with the SaaS license constitute a single, combined performance obligation, and revenue is recognized over the term of the license. Payments are generally received annually in advance of the service period.
The Company sells appliances that are typically drop shipped from third-party suppliers selected by the Company. The transaction price allocated to the appliance is generally recognized as revenue at fulfillment when the customer obtains control of the product. Payments for appliances are generally received upon delivery of the hardware product.
Maintenance and support
Maintenance and support arrangements grant customers the right to software updates and technical support over the term of the maintenance and support contract. Revenue from maintenance and support is generally recognized ratably over the contract term beginning on the commencement date of each contract, which is upon fulfillment of the software obligation. Payments are generally received annually in advance of the service period.
Professional services and training
Professional services and training generally consist of software implementation, on-boarding services and best practices consulting. Revenue from professional services contracts is typically recognized as performed, generally using hours expended to measure progress. Services are generally invoiced monthly for work performed.
Disclosure of accounting policy for revenue recognition. If the entity has different policies for different types of revenue transactions, the policy for each material type of transaction is generally disclosed. If a sales transaction has multiple element arrangements (for example, delivery of multiple products, services or the rights to use assets) the disclosure may indicate the accounting policy for each unit of accounting as well as how units of accounting are determined and valued. The disclosure may encompass important judgment as to appropriateness of principles related to recognition of revenue. The disclosure also may indicate the entity's treatment of any unearned or deferred revenue that arises from the transaction.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef